Development of Headphones
The ubiquity of portable electronic "lifestyle" and communication devices such as MP3 players, celluar phones etc. has resulted in a heightened demand for high quality headphones. As with loudspeakers, a significant amount of development work can be undertaken using computer simulations to model aspects of the transducer, the acoustic cavity and head/ ear interface.
Typical Circum-aural Headphone Module
Sectional Detail of Headphone Revealing Transducer and Inner Chambers
Axisymmetric Model of a Typical Headphone
Note that resistive layers R1, R2 and R3 are included to represent paper/ felt absorbers. The circumferential cushion has initially been modelled as a solid ring with no absorbency.