Acoustic Radiation from a Loudspeaker Diaphragm
Loudspeakers need to be modelled as a fluid-structure coupled problem to accurately capture the interaction between the loudspeaker diaphragm and the acoustic space into which it radiates.
Below is a simulation of a 160mm drive unit at an excitation frequency of 4.3kHz. The simulation includes a small mass to simulate a bead of glue on the diaphragm surface which excites 3D mode-shapes and requires a minimum of a 3D half model. The radiation at this frequency is slightly "steered" due to the presence of the mass positioned at an anti-nodal location on the cone.
Acoustic Pressure Contours